Hashtables

The `(rnrs hashtables (6))`library provides a set of operations on
hashtables.
A *hashtable* is a data structure that associates keys with values.
Any object can be used as a key, provided a *hash function*
and a suitable *equivalence function* is available. A hash function is a
procedure that maps
keys to integers.
It is the programmer’s responsibility to ensure that the hash function
is compatible with the equivalence function,
which is a procedure that accepts two keys and returns true if they
are equivalent and `#f` otherwise.
Standard hashtables for arbitrary objects based on the `eq?` and
`eqv?` predicates (see report section on “Equivalence predicates”) are provided.
Also, hash functions for arbitrary objects, strings, and symbols are provided.

This section uses the *hashtable* parameter name for arguments
that must be hashtables, and the *key* parameter name for
arguments that must be hashtable keys.

Returns a newly allocated mutable hashtable that accepts
arbitrary objects as keys,
and compares those keys with `eq?`. If an argument is given, the initial
capacity of the hashtable is set to approximately *k* elements.

Returns a newly allocated mutable hashtable that accepts
arbitrary objects as keys,
and compares those keys with `eqv?`.
If an argument is given, the initial
capacity of the hashtable is set to approximately *k* elements.

*Hash-function* and *equiv* must be procedures.
*Hash-function* should accept a key as an argument and should return a
non-negative exact integer.
*Equiv* should accept two keys as arguments and return a single
value.
Neither procedure should mutate the hashtable returned by `make-hashtable`.
The `make-hashtable` procedure returns a newly allocated mutable
hashtable using *hash-function*
as the hash function and *equiv* as the equivalence function used to
compare keys.
If a third argument is given, the
initial capacity of the hashtable is set to approximately *k* elements.

Both *hash-function* and *equiv* should behave like pure functions
on the domain of keys. For example, the `string-hash`
and `string=?` procedures are permissible only if all
keys are strings and the contents of those strings are never
changed so long as any of them continues to serve as a key in
the hashtable. Furthermore, any pair of keys for which
*equiv* returns true should
be hashed to the same exact integers by
*hash-function*.

*Implementation responsibilities: *The implementation must check the restrictions on
*hash-function* and *equiv* to the extent performed by
applying them as described.

Note:Hashtables are allowed to cache the results of calling the hash function and equivalence function, so programs cannot rely on the hash function being called for every lookup or update. Furthermore any hashtable operation may call the hash function more than once.

Rationale:Hashtable lookups are often followed by updates, so caching may improve performance. Hashtables are free to change their internal representation at any time, which may result in many calls to the hash function.

Returns `#t` if *hashtable* is a hashtable,
`#f` otherwise.

Returns the number of keys contained in *hashtable* as an exact integer.

Returns the value in *hashtable* associated with *key*.
If *hashtable* does not contain an association for *key*,
*default* is returned.

Changes *hashtable* to associate *key* with *obj*,
adding a new association or replacing any existing association for *key*,
and returns unspecified values.

Removes any association for *key* within *hashtable* and
returns unspecified values.

Returns `#t` if *hashtable* contains an association
for *key*, `#f` otherwise.

*Proc* should accept one argument,
should return a single value, and should not mutate *hashtable*.
The `hashtable-update!` procedure applies *proc* to the value in *hashtable*
associated with *key*,
or to *default* if *hashtable* does not contain an
association for *key*.
The *hashtable* is then changed to associate *key*
with the value returned by *proc*.

The behavior of `hashtable-update!` is equivalent to the
following code, but may be implemented
more efficiently in cases where the implementation can
avoid multiple lookups of the same key:

hashtable key

(proc (hashtable-ref

hashtable key default)))

`
`

Returns a copy of *hashtable*. If the
*mutable* argument is provided and is true, the returned hashtable is mutable;
otherwise it is immutable.

Rationale:Hashtable references may be less expensive with immutable hashtables. Also, the creator of a hashtable may wish to prevent modifications, particularly by code outside of the creator’s control.

Removes all associations from *hashtable* and returns unspecified values.

If a second argument is given, the current
capacity of the hashtable is reset to approximately *k* elements.

Returns a vector of all keys in *hashtable*.
The order of the vector is unspecified.

Returns two values, a vector of the keys in *hashtable*, and a
vector of the corresponding values.

(hashtable-set! h 1 ’one)

(hashtable-set! h 2 ’two)

(hashtable-set! h 3 ’three)

(hashtable-entries h))

⇒

; two return values

`
`

Returns the equivalence function used by
*hashtable* to compare keys. For hashtables
created with `make-eq-hashtable` and `make-eqv-hashtable`,
returns `eq?` and `eqv?` respectively.

Returns the hash function used by *hashtable*.
For hashtables created by `make-eq-hashtable`
or `make-eqv-hashtable`, `#f` is returned.

Rationale:Themake-eq-hashtableandmake-eqv-hashtableconstructors are designed to hide their hash function. This allows implementations to use the machine address of an object as its hash value, rehashing parts of the table as necessary if a garbage collector moves objects to different addresses.

Returns `#t` if *hashtable* is mutable, otherwise `#f`.

The `equal-hash`, `string-hash`, and `string-ci-hash`
procedures of this section are acceptable as the hash functions of
a hashtable only if the keys on which they are called are not mutated
while they remain in use as keys in the hashtable.

Returns an integer hash value for *obj*, based on
its structure and current contents. This hash function is suitable
for use with `equal?` as an equivalence function.

Returns an integer hash value for *string*, based on
its current contents.
This hash function is suitable
for use with `string=?` as an equivalence function.

Returns an integer hash value for *string* based on
its current contents, ignoring case.
This hash function is suitable
for use with `string-ci=?` as an equivalence function.

Returns an integer hash value for *symbol*.